“Coiled Flow Inverter for continuous Metal Scavenging & coupling to One-pot
Click Reaction in Flow” with Prof. Volker Hessel of TU Eindhoven, The Netherlands (2014 continue).
The use of different types of copper catalysts and metal scavengers (EDTS, DTPA and EDDS) were
investigated together with variation of metal scavenger concentration and pH in a helical coil
and coiled flow inverter (CFI). Phase separation is achieved with membrane separator or slit separator
based on wettability. Currently good operation is obtained, further investigation is in progress.
“Two-Phase Flow & Mass transfer in helical capillary Flow
Reactors”with Prof. Kockmannof TU Dortmund, Germany (2014-continued).
Microstructured devices have gained much attention in R&D and industry as they offer large surface area
with enhanced mass & heat transfer. Helically coiled tubular devices in micro-scale can further increase
the performance in terms of transport phenomena. It is proposed to study the liquid-liquid mass transfer in
helical coil and CFI devices using water/acetone/butyl acetate test systems for liquid extraction.
Develoment in Microfludics” with Prof. Marius PARASCHIVOIU of
Concordia University, Montreal, Canada (1999-2011).
A state of art review was planned on single phase mixing in micro devices
with one of my Ph.D. student visiting his school for one year.
“Coiled Flow Inverters for Micro to Macroscale
Production of (co)Polymers” with Dr Christoph Serra of ECPM, Strasbourg and Dr. Horaou Yannick of
Institut de Mecanique des Fluides et des Solides, Toulouse, France (2009-2012).
This project aims at the intensification of a
controlled/”living” radical polymerization process for the production of architecture-controlled
(co)polymers. The Process Intensification method relies on the use of continuous
low coiled flow inverter reactors which was recently found to be extremely efficient
The project methodology is based on a multi-scale
approach which considers microfluidic experiments for acquiring thermo-kinetics parameters,
numerical simulations for scaling up and finally validation experiments on a pilot plant scale.
"Numerical Simulation of steady and unsteady
turbulent flow fields in coiled flow inverter" with Prof. Yves Remond and Dr. Horaou
Yannick of Institut de Mecanique des Fluides et des Solides, Strasbourg, France
(2006 - 2007).
The objective of the present study is to
characterise numerically the turbulent flow development and the turbulent temperature
fields in the proposed device made up from the configurations of bent coils. The NSMB
solver (multi-blocs parallel compressible Navier-Stokes solver with various space and
time discretisation schemes and various turbulence models) will be used to expertise
the behaviour of various turbulence models. A special attention will be paid to
advanced unsteady turbulence modelling (Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation, Scale
Adaptative Simulation, Organised Eddy Simulation).
"Contact Angle Measuring System for Measurement
of Catalyst Wetting Efficiency in Gas - Liquid - Solid phase" with Prof. Jean-Pierre
LECOMPTE, ENSIL Engineering School, LIMOGES Cedex, France (2006).
The objective of the present study is to
characterize the catalyst wetting efficiency and investigate the importance of static
& dynamic contact angles in liquid drop spreading and dynamics. The experimental
techniques for Goniometer setup and digital image analysis tool (drop analysis) for
data extraction and calculation is carried out. Experiments were performed on commonly
used industrial catalyst pellets of glass and alumina available in different geometries
or shape with liquids of varying viscosity surface tension.
"Studies on High Pressure Bubble Column with
Prof. Adrian Schumpe of Technical University Braunschweig, Germany & Dr. Anand Prakash,
University of Western Ontario, Canada- Value INR 27.5 Lacs (US$ 62,500).
Bubble column reactors, with and without
suspended solids and in many configurations, are frequently applied in industry for
various chemical processes. Industrial bubble columns are often operated at high
temperatures and at elevated pressures. Despite this fact, considerable effort has
been made to understand the design and scale-up of these reactors at ambient conditions,
and it was generally believed that experimental results obtained at atmospheric
conditions are suitable for the design and scale-up of bubble columns at high pressures.
The aim of the present proposal is to study in depth the gas holdup structure and
mixing characteristics over a wide range of operating conditions and gas-Iiquid system
properties, specifically, in organic liquids at elevated temperature and pressure.
"Hydrodynamic and Mass Transfer Studies In Bubble Column In
Biphasic Liquids" with Prof. Mark Wanright and Dr. A.A. Adesina of
University of New-South Wales (UNSW) Sydney, Australia (2003-2006).
Biphasic liquid systems are frequently encountered in a variety of processes such as
the production of pharmaceuticals and specialty, chemicals, high value-added
petrochemicals (olefin hydroformylation) and enzymatic reactions. They are 'also a
feature of new process intensification technologies, for example, in phase transfer
catalysis and reaction-separation modules which permit improved material recycle
and energy consumption. Although there is a voluminous literature on the design of
multiphase bubble column reactors (BCRs) for operations involving a single liquid
phase, there is practically no design correlation for the biphasic liquid situation. In
order to understand the interplay between transport steps and the reaction kinetics in
the determination of optimum process variables a 2-year project is proposed to
investigate the hydrodynamic characteristics of biphasic liquid systems and the
associated quantitative relationships to mass transfer processes across gas-liquid and
liquid- liquid interfaces.
Dr. A.A. Adesina visited IITD in November 2003 for one month to start the project.
"Studies on Wetting Efficiency of Catalyst
using Goniometer" with Prof. Henri Delmas of Chem. Engg. Laboratory, INP, ENSIGC,
Toulouse, France. Summer Internship of Mr. Klauss Rivassu was jointly guided by
Prof. K.D.P. Nigam and Prof. Henri Delmas (June 2003- Aug2003).
Studies on spreading, surface treatments
and spreading rates were carried out. Control of droplet surface area to increase
or decrease evaporation, optimal wetting of heat exchanger were taken into
"Studies on Gas-Liquid-Liquid System in Bubble Column Reactors" with
Prof. Henri Delmas of Chem. Engg. Laboratory, INP, ENSIGC, Toulouse,
France. Ph.D. thesis of Mr. Arunabha Kundu was jointly guided by Prof.
K.D.P. Nlgam and Prof. Henri Delmas (2001-2003).
In this project attempt has been made to study the gas-liquid-liquid system in a
bubble column. The different possible pathways of mass transfer from the gas phase
to the continuous liquid phase in the presence of immiscible organic dispersed liquid
phase has been studied. It is interesting that some organic liquids (n-decane,
dodecane and n- heptane) show mass transfer enhancement, where toluene, anisole
and 2-ethyl-l-hexanol hinder mass transfer compared to air-water system.
"Hydrodynamics and Mass Transfer in a Bubble C'olumn Reactor" with
Prof. Michel Roustan, INSA, Toulouse, France (2000-2002). M. Tech thesis
of (Ms) Bhawana Bhatia was jointly supervised by Prof. K.D.P .Nigam &
Prof. Michel Roustan.
An attempt has been made to predict gas hold up and volumetric mass transfer
coefficient as a fraction of physical properties of gas a11d liquids and operating
conditions. A correlation has been developed for both gas hold up and volumetric
mass transfer coefficient in bubble column operating at high pressure which predicts
the literature values with in 20 %.
"Transesterification Reaction In Liquid/Liquid Phase" with Prof. R.
Schomiicker, Technical University Berlin (2000-2001). M.Tech. Thesis of Mr.
Milind Joshi was jointly supervised by Prof. K.D.P. Nigam & Prof. Reinhard
Monoglycerides are used in many industries such as phannaceutical and food
industries. In food industries monoglycerides are used as emulsifying agents to lower
the surface tension between two phases and thus stabilize the products against
separation of phases. The transesterification of tatty acid methyl esters with glycerol
using homogeneous catalyst was studied. The aim was to study the influence of the
specific interfacial area and of pressure on the rate of reaction in a liquid-liquid two
phase system. A kinetic model for this reaction was developed.
A joint publication has been submitted to Catalyst Today based on this research
"Studies on Motionless Mixer" with Prof. Henning Bockhorn, University
of Karlsruhe, FR Germany, 2000-2001. M. Tech. Thesis of MR. Sathiah
Pratap was jointly supervised by Prof. K.D.P. Nigam & Prof, Henning
Motionless mixers now play a well-established role in process mixing. Today's
technology also allow static mixer to perform a variety additional unit operations,
such as absorption, scrubbing, extraction and reaction enhancement. Processes that
require high mixing efficiency, controlled shear and plug flow are excellent
candidates for motionless mixing. In motionless mixers, homogenization is attained
by means of motionless elements by using the flow energy of the fluid.
"Static Mixers to Promote Axial Mixing". with Prof. E. Bruce Nauman,
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, USA (200-2001).
A new class of Static Mixers has been developed which are intended to homogenize
feed streams subject to temporal variation in concentration and temperature. The
general design approximates the axial mixing performance of a CSTR without need
for moving parts.A joint publication has appeared based on this research cooperation,
Trans. I. Chem. Engrs. Part A (London) (2002).
A tripartite cooperation to prepare a state of art review on Motionless Mixing was
established, between Prof..Bruce Nauman (USA) , Prof. Djelveh Reza (France) and
myself (IITD).Based on this tripartite cooperation a review paper has been accepted
for publication, Trans. I. Chem. Engrs. Part A (London) (2003).
"Effect of Rheolgical Properties of Coating Liquids on Paper-Coating
Processes" with Prof. N. Esmail, Concordia University, Canada, 2000-2001.
Paper-yellowing inhibitors are polymers like materials that are claimed to be use in
inhibiting the yellowing of documents and books over long period of time.
The aim of this research is to study the mechanical properties and delivery of these
inhibitors to the raw sheet of paper.
"Trickle Bed Reactors" with Prof. Faical Larachi, University of Laval,
Quebec, Canada, 2000.
Trickle-bed reactors, which are catalytic randomly, packed fixed-bed vertical tubular
columns contacted by cocurrent downward gas-liquid flows, host a variety of
gas-liquid -solid catalytic reactions especially in the petroleum and petrochemical
industries. The aim of this project is to develop a representational flow structure and
a detailed residence time distribution (RTD) model which can describe the mass
transfer and the backmixing of the liquid flow in a porous particle containing
trickle-bed operated under partially and fully wetted conditions.
"Bent Coils- A motionless Mixer" with Prof. Djelveh G. Reza, Laboratoire
de Ge'nie, Chimique et Biochimique, AUBIERE CEDEX, France, 2000.
A motionless mixer is no moving part, duct like mixing device which, by
redistributing the fluid across the flow channel, rearranges temperature and
compositional distributions and narrows the residence time distributions. Such
devices are usually effective in eliminating severe temperature and composition
gradients but have high capital costs and high pumping costs as compared to an
open duct. Helical bent coils find extensive use as motionless mixers owing to the
cross sectional mixing induced by centrifugal force. The sudden shift in the direction
of centrifugal force in bent coils is more effective than a gradual change in coiled coils
in order to narrow the residence time distribution.
"Studies on Bubble Column" with Prof. G. Eigenberger, University of
Stuttgart, DAAD, 1998-1999. M.Tech Thiesi of Mr. Prashant Tiwari was
jointly supervised by Prof. K.D.P. Nigam & Prof. G. Eigenberger.
Bubble columns are mass transfer and reaction devices in which one or several gases
are brought into contact and react with the liquid phase or with a component
dissolved or suspended in it. The mass transfer stages, may take place before or after
the chemical reaction itself. Several investigation of flow behavior in multiphase flow
has been done, but most of the work is limited to water/air system. The aim of this
study was to evaluate the influence of the test reaction NaOH/CO2 on the
hydrodynamics in bubble column reactors.
"Three-Phase Sparged Reactors" with Prof. Adrian Schumpe of Technical
University Braunschweig, Germany (1994-1996).
An attempt has been made to cover the fundamental aspects of fluid flow, together
with heat, mass and momentum transfer, relevant to non-agitated three-phase
reactors. The state-of-art reviews on design criteria for the gas/liquid/solid reactors
has been discussed. The industrial examples have been compiled which illustrate the
combination of reaction-specific micro- kinetics with the macro-kinetics derived from
the fundamental aspects of fluid flow, together with heat, mass and momentum
A book entitled "Three-Phase Sparged Reactors" edited by K.D.P. Nigam and A.
Schumpe has been published, Gordon and Breach Publishers (1996).
"Studies on Multiphase Reactors" with Prof. w. D. Deckwer, University
of Oldenburg, FR Germany, AvH Foundation, 1989, Value DM 49,000.
A three-phase fluidized bed is formed when solid particles are fluidized with
cocurrent upward gas and liquid flows. Mass transfer and effective shear rate in the
three-phase fluidized bed were investigated experimentally. A uniform correlation
was developed for the liquid phase volumetric mass transfer coefficient in the
three-phase fluidized bed with viscous liquids.
"Multiphase Reactors" with Prof. M. H. Al-Dahhan, Washington
University, St. Louis, Missouri, USA, (proposed).
Multiphase reactors are found in diverse applications such as manufacture of
petroleum based fuels and products, in production of commodity and specialty
chemicals, pharmaceuticals, herbicides and pesticides, in refining of ores, in
production of polymers and other materials and in pollution abatement. In all such
applications, the knowledge of fluid dynamic and transport parameters is necessary
for development of appropriate reactor models and scale-up rules
"Studies on High Pressure Bubble Column with Prof. Adrian Schumpe of
Technical University Braunschweig, Germany (proposed).
Bubble column reactors, with and without suspended solids and in many
configurations, are frequently applied in industry for various chemical processes.
Industrial bubble columns are often operated at high temperatures and at elevated
pressures. Despite this fact, considerable effort has been made to understand the
design and scale-up of these reactors at ambient conditions, and it was generally
believed that experimental results obtained at atmospheric conditions are suitable for
the design and scale-up of bubble columns at high pressures.
The aim of the present proposal is to study in depth the gas holdup structure and
mixing characteristics over a wide range of operating conditions and gas-Iiquid
system properties, specifically, in organic liquids at elevated temperature and